What Is A Healthy Weight Gain During Pregnancy In Kgs Nutrition and Food

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Nutrition and Food

“Nutrition is the process of absorbing nutrients from the food you eat.”

Types of foods

• Carbohydrates –

Carbohydrates are energy-providing nutrients and our main source of energy. They are easily digested and broken down into glucose, which the body uses to carry out its many functions. The body gets 4 calories per 1 gram of carbohydrates consumed.

Carbohydrates are grouped into

simple carbohydrates (sugar), complex carbohydrates (fiber) and starch.

and based on glycemic index it is grouped into low, moderate and high

Glycemic Index shows the measurement of how high and how quickly blood sugar levels change after eating carbohydrates. The higher the glycemic index, the higher the increase in blood sugar and the longer it takes to return to normal. For a healthy diet, it is best to focus on foods with a low glycemic index and it also depends on the physical work. Foods with a high glycemic index are linked to increased risks of heart disease and diabetes.

Carbohydrate requirements in our diet:

Carbohydrates should make up 45% – 65% of the calories in your diet, which is roughly 225g – 325g of carbs for someone on a 2000 calorie diet.

Healthy and unhealthy sources of carbohydrates in our food:

The healthiest sources of carbohydrates are unprocessed or minimally processed whole grains, vegetables, fruits and beans.

Unhealthy sources of carbohydrates include white bread, pastries, sodas and other highly processed or refined foods. These items contribute to weight gain, interfere with weight loss, and promote diabetes and heart disease.

Fats –

Fats are an essential part of the diet. One of the sources of energy and important in relation to fat-soluble vitamins.

1 gram of fat provides 37 kJ (9 kcal) of energy. Foods that contain a lot of fat provide a lot of energy.

There are different types of fat, including saturated fats and unsaturated fats.

Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature, while unsaturated fats are liquid.

A high intake of saturated or trans fatty acids can have negative effects on health.

Foods with polyunsaturated fats are essential for good health and overall health. This can be found in seafood such as tuna, mackerel and salmon, as well as nuts and canola and flax seed oils.

• Thread –

The fibrous indigestible part of our diet essential for health of the digestive system.

Fiber is one type of carbohydrate. Although most carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules, fibers cannot be broken down into sugar molecules, and instead pass through the body undigested. Fiber helps regulate the use of sugars in the body, helping to keep hunger and blood sugar under control.

Fiber should make up at least 5% of your daily caloric intake. Children and adults should consume at least 20 to 30 grams of fiber per day for good health 2,000 calories daily. Fiber comes in two types, both beneficial for health:

• Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, can help lower glucose levels as well as help lower blood cholesterol.

• Insoluble fiber, which does not dissolve in water, can help food move through your digestive system, promote regularity and help prevent constipation.

• Minerals – Minerals are inorganic substances and essential nutrients that are needed in small amounts to keep you healthy. Minerals do not give you energy or calories, but they are involved and help in the formation of bones and teeth. People have different requirements, according to their age, gender, physiological state (eg pregnancy) and sometimes their state of health. Some minerals are needed in larger amounts than others, for example calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride. Others are needed in smaller amounts and are sometimes called trace minerals, for example iron, zinc, iodine, fluoride, selenium and copper.

Protein – Proteins are made by combining smaller amino acids. Proteins in the diet are known as macronutrients, and contribute energy (calories) to the body. There are 20 amino acids used to build proteins.

Because all cells and tissues contain protein, it is essential for growth and repair of muscles and other body tissues. Hair and nails are mostly made of protein. You also use protein to make enzymes, hormones, and other body chemicals. Protein is an important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin and blood.

Each gram of protein contains 4 calories. Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) is set at 0.75g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day for adults.

Sources of protein include meat products (hamburger, fish, chicken), dairy products (cheese, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese), eggs, tofu, lentils and soy milk.

Vitamins – Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential in very small amounts for supporting normal physiological function. Vitamins do not give you calories or energy, but help you stay healthy.

There are two types of vitamins: water soluble and fat soluble.

Water-soluble vitamins include vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin C, biotin and folate. They are not stored in large quantities in the body, and any extra is lost through your urine.

Water and fat-soluble vitamins play important roles in many chemical processes in the body. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E and K and they can be stored in your body. High amounts of fat-soluble vitamins are not recommended, as these can cause health problems.

• Water – Water contains zero calories and is not a source of fat, protein or carbohydrates. Although pure water does not contain additional nutrients. Water is its own nutrient, helping every cell in your body function properly as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients, as 60 percent of the human body is made up of water.

• Water regulates body fluids

• Water helps with digestion and makes you feel full (so you eat less)

• Water prevents muscle fatigue and dehydration

• Water supports the kidney’s process of ridding the body of toxins

To meet Institute of Medicine water intake recommendations, men should drink about 13 cups of non-alcoholic fluids per day, while women should drink about 9 cups

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