Weight Loss And Exercise Before And After At Age 55 All About Menopause

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All About Menopause

Menstruation and Climacteric

Explanation. Menopause refers to the final cessation of menstruation, and climacteric is the time when a woman transitions from childbearing to adulthood. Meno¬pause is what laymen call the ‘change of life’. Although both terms are used, menopause is the more popular term used. These are physiological processes due to cessation of ovarian follicular activity.

Etiology. Menstruation occurs due to the exhaustion of the eggs from the ovarian cysts and the lack of estrogen.

Physiological Changes in the Climacteric or Menopausal Age

genitalia. Progressive atrophy of the genital organs results in increased deposition of tissue.

Ovary. Follicles are small (5 gm. each), fibrotic and with an exfoliated surface. Ovarian vessels become sclerosed. Cortical stromal hyperplasia is a frequent finding due to high LH levels in women aged 40-46. The ovarian stroma becomes a source of small amounts of androgens.

The fallopian tubes become smaller and the infection becomes less common.

The stomach becomes small and fibrotic due to muscle atrophy. Endometrium becomes thin and atrophic (senile). In some women, endometrial. hyperplasia may occur after menopause due to continued oestrone stimulation. The cervix atrophies and swells to a disc. The uterine secretions will be thin and thick, and 4 will appear. The squamous epithelium dies and loses rugosity. A smear shows atrophic changes. The talisman slips into the shallows of sexual intercourse. The vulva shrinks and the introitus narrows : the tissue of the mobile womb becomes soft.

The characteristics of the second sex. Tests show atrophy of the glandular tissue resulting in a lump. These become suspended due to the release of surrounding fat. Pubic and axillary hair becomes thinner.

Body. Body weight decreases after 65 years. There is a decrease in the cell mass of the organs. The plumper the skin, the less elastic it will be and the hair will appear on the face. Lower back fat reduction. occurs on the hips and thighs. Height decreases after age 65. Kyphosis may develop due to osteoporosis of the spine.

Metabolic. Osteoporosis is caused by a lack of estrogen. Depletion of trabecular bone (collagen matrix) (Osteoblasts) and magnesium leads to Osteoporosis without estrogen. Premenopausal women are protected against ischaernic heart disease due to high HDL and low LDL cholesterol. This increases after menopause, so the risk of ischaernic heart disease also increases. Premature menopause or oophorectomy can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (heart and brain disease) and osteoporosis.

Lost. Hypochlorhydria develops. Decreased motor activity of all the digestive tracts results in dyspepsia and powdery mildew in postmenopausal women. Cancer and urethral epithelia atrophy.

Mentally. Emotional problems are normal. During menopause a woman’s desire increases. After the age of 60, the desire for sex fades away as an adult activity.

Endocrine. Gonadal insufficiency in menopause. Plasma Oestradiol levels decrease and oestrone is retained, but the ovarian stroma produces andostenedione. The extraglandular conversion of androstenedione to oestrone occurs in adipose tissue. After menopause, the adrenal cortex becomes the source of oestrone derived from androstenedione. Oestrone is the main estrogen after menopause. The daily formation of estrone after menopause has been estimated at 15 100 gg / day (Mac Donald et al, 1973) and the serum level at 30 70 pg / ml. The release of progesterone from the ovary stops due to the absence of ovulation. Total urinary estrogen levels drop to 6 Pg1 24 hours during the postmenopausal period. Androstenedione levels are mainly from the adrenal cortex, low. from the ovary up to half that seen before menopause. Testosterone levels do not decrease significantly because the ovary secretes more testosterone after menopause.

Pituitary gonadotrophins. FHS and LH are secreted in increasing quantities due to the lack of negative control by ovarian steroids. When the ovulatory LH surge disappears, mean menopausal basal serum gonadotrophin levels are in the range of 50 150 rn LU/ml FSH and 50 100 m IU/ml LH. The FSH level is 15 times higher than the premenopausal level at 3 5 years after menopause and the LH level increases three times. Prolactin levels decrease.

Time. The climacteric process begins 2 3 years before menopause but continues 2 5 years after. The age at which menopause occurs varies from 40 to 55 years with an average of 47 years. Gender, ethnicity and the influence of age on menopause. Women in the fall go faster than women in the cold weather. Some believe that the beginning of menarche, and the end of menopause at the end of the future of menarche is associated with early menopause. Early or delayed menopause is considered when it occurs before age 35 or after age 55. Early menopause may be due to ovarian failure, oophorectomy, or ovarian cysts.

Delayed metabolism is often caused by certain pelvic diseases such as uterine fibroids or by exposure to diseases such as diabetes mellitus.

Clinical features of menopause and climacteric

Symptoms of menopause. This occurs in the conditions of (a) a gradual decrease in the menstrual cycle and the cessation of menstruation, (b) a prolonged period of menstruation that stops, (c) an abrupt cessation of menstruation. Before menopause the menstrual cycle changes. Excessive menstruation or menstruation is not caused by constipation as is often believed by lay people but by certain pelvic diseases.

Other symptoms. Most women remain asymptomatic. Adapts well to the physical changes of menopause. Some may have mild symptoms of weight gain, joint pain, or an increase in libido followed by a decrease.

Mark. The following symptoms occur gradually in a normal woman during menopause and after.

1. General symptoms. Weight gain, fat deposition on the hips, buttocks, and around the breasts. Breasts are checked.

2. Genetic markers.

Book. Progressive atrophy with small hairs and narrowing of the introitus tara.

Woman. This narrows down to the ‘teting’ of the penis, the thinning of the mucous membrane and the 18ss of the rugae.

Cancer. The Portio vaginalis atrophies and is crossed by a spinous disc.

Family. The body is small and hard.

Adnexae. Ovaries become inoperable.

Analysis. This is possible from clinical conditions that are helped by an atrophic cystic coating and a high serum FSH level of 50 mIU/ml and above. A higher plasma LH level is less helpful. Urinary or serum estrogen values ​​are often the same as in the follicular phase, so the diagnosis is less reliable.

Different Expertise. Menstruation due to menopause is comparable to that due to pseudocyesis or pregnancy.

Treatment. Mentally. Explanations of the situation and words of reassurance should be given to the menopause woman when seeking advice on how to stop menstruation. Improving health through diet adjustments, proper rest and exercise and bowel movements. For sleep problems, diazepam (Valium) 5 mg. or Lorazepam 1 or 2 mg. taken orally at bedtime.

Menopausal or Climacteric Syndrome

Menstruation refers to a group of symptoms that some women experience during menopause. Hot flushes (sign of vasomotor weakness) lasting for one year in 80% are characteristic of menopause. He will be younger by 3 4 years. The cause of hot flashes is not clear but it follows the withdrawal of estrogen in women with poor blood circulation. An increase in hypothalamic endorphins is associated. It can be seen that 25% of women have psychological causes, especially after oophorectomy or ovarian cyst in childhood.

Swelling depends on the rate of estrogen loss and extragonadal oestrone production. As the body gradually adjusts to a decline in estrogen, the flow gradually subsides.

Symptoms. The following occur: vasomotor and other symptoms follow but occur before cessation of menstruation.

1. Depression. Menstruation stops as discussed under menopause. Part of the menopause women come with emotional symptoms, loss of libido and dry skin during sleep, Hot flashes and hot flashes that some women complain of less and delays.

2. Vasomotor. The ‘sweat’ (feeling of warmth) due to the loss of skin can be seen by these, women on the face and neck and spread to the whole body; Sweating may be followed by sweating. It may come in a day but sometimes every hour; come at night. These are symptoms of menopause.

3. None. This is manifested by headache, irritability, insomnia, depression, fatigue, depression, palpitation. You may feel ‘pins and needles’ in the palms and soles. Sweating and sweating can cause sleep disturbances.

4. Physics. These include decreased libido and dyspareunia due to atrophic vaginitis and lack of vaginal lubrication during sleep.

5. Musculoskeletal. These can cause back pain, pain in the joints due to weak muscles and tendons.

Signs. These are similar to the information under menopause.

Analysis. This is discussed under menopause.

Different Expertise. Pseudocyesis of false pregnancy may be mistaken by the patient for infertility. In the past, amenorrhea, enlargement of the breasts and abdomen due to the fat released during pregnancy; There is also the false belief that bowel movements are caused by bowel cancer. The patient should be sure that her symptoms are menopause. In all these cases, pregnancy may occur again, and should be carefully ruled out by careful examination, urinary pregnancy test and pelvic ultrasound.

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Explanation. Constipation that occurs in a patient under the age of 35 is called pre-existing constipation. Cause. A small number of ovarian follicles are exhausted. Clinical features, symptoms, secondary amenorrhea for more than six months. Some have hot flashes, mood swings, insomnia, loss of libido, (menopause). dry hair. Signs. Atrophic squamous epithelium, normal or small uterus. Investigations. Elevated serum FSH above 50 mIU/ml.; Ovarian biopsy shows no unproductive ovaries. Treatment Approval, diazepam for sleep disorders. Estrogen therapy is prescribed for menopause. Menstruation cannot be carried out on hormone therapy.

Climacteric men. About 10 percent of men experience climacteric symptoms later than women due to androgen deficiency. The remaining 90 percent go away on their own without symptoms.

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