Lack Of Apppetite Orange Pee Abdominal Pain Weight Loss Nausea What Are 3 Short Term Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

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What Are 3 Short Term Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from insufficient insulin or insulin resistance. There are two types of diabetes. Short-term problems and long-term problems. Here we discuss the short complications of diabetes.

Temporary problems

Diabetes

Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma

Ketoacidosis

Causes of Hypoglycaemia:

Hypoglycaemia occurs when a patient’s blood sugar level drops too low. Causes of hypoglycaemia

1-Not enough food, especially after taking antidiabetic drugs or insulin.

2-High doses of Insulin and Sulphonylureas can also cause hypoglycaemia.

3-Excessive physical activity can lead to hypoglycaemia, especially in those taking diabetes medications. Exercising causes glucose to enter the cells and lower blood glucose levels.

Diabetes symptoms:

Whenever hypoglycaemia occurs, the patient may experience symptoms such as palpitations, tremors, sweating, swollen lips, fainting, heart palpitations, rapid heartbeat, anxiety. , confused and angry. These are just warning signs, but if we don’t treat hypoglycaemia the patient will go into a coma and die.

What to do if Hypoglycaemia occurs:

If you are in the hospital and your nurse or doctor finds that you have diabetes, then you will be injected with 25% dextrose water 5 ampules depending on your blood sugar level. At home, hypoglycaemia can be treated by simply taking sweetened liquids such as orange juice or sugar containing tablets. If the patient goes into a coma then intramuscular injection of GLUCAGON will help. Glucagon is a hormone that increases blood sugar levels. So it makes sense that if you are traveling or going out, you should carry your glucagon kit. Families and friends should learn how to inject Glucagon, because the patient is unconscious and cannot take it. If the patient is unconscious, never try to put food or drink in his mouth because it may cause regurgitation. If you are taking insulin and drinking alcohol, there is a high risk of hypoglycaemia as the body cannot produce sugar fast enough. It is recommended that men with insulin use 3 units of alcohol and women 2 units. In addition to drinking, you should always eat something.

What is Ketoacidosis, Definition of ketoacidosis

Ketosis is the accumulation of ketone bodies (resulted from the breakdown of fat) in the blood and Acidosis increases the acidity of the blood, i.e. the PH of the blood decreases. It is a serious condition that can lead to coma. It is often seen in type 1 diabetes patients, and may also occur in type 2 diabetes, especially in older patients. Diabetic acidosis is often initiated by an infection such as a urinary tract infection or chest infection.

Pathophysiology and causes of diabetic ketoacidosis:

We usually see DKA when you miss doses of insulin, so the blood sugar level rises and the body cells start burning fat which produces ketone bodies and acid. . dehydration occurs due to loss of water and salt. Ketoacidosis occurs when the body’s cells cannot meet their needs without enough sugar. Instead, the cells begin to obtain energy by breaking down fatty acids to form ketone bodies. When the body’s PH becomes acidic, the body tries to neutralize the acids by increasing the speed and depth of the acidosis.

Signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis:

Fatigue Smell of product on breath like nail polish remover Increased thirst Polyuria increased urination. Weight-loss. Acute Oral Thrush. Nausea Nausea Nausea Emesis (vomiting), Abdominal pain. Loss of interest. Flu symptoms. Weakness and apathy. The patient’s breathing becomes stronger and faster. Unconsciousness (diabetic coma) after prolonged DKA.

Prevention of diabetic ketoacidosis

If you are sick or have an infection, remember that your body needs a lot of insulin in these conditions, so try to increase your insulin dose when you are sick contagious, but before taking insulin you should always check your blood sugar level. Be sure to control the level of blood sugar by regular monitoring with a glucometer. Whenever you feel down, just check your blood sugar level. If you find that your blood sugar is high, then go for a urine test to detect ketone bodies. You should always have a urine ketone test at home.

Diabetic acid is often associated with gastritis, because less insulin is needed if you have symptoms of gastritis such as nausea, vomiting and less food. and a lack of insulin can cause acidosis.

How do you know if you have diabetes?

Diagnosis is by: Regularly measuring blood sugar – Diabetic ketoacidosis is very common. Urine test for ketone bodies is a blood sample taken from a vein – done in a hospital and measures the PH of the blood. The doctor will also perform tests to rule out an infection.

How to treat diabetic ketoacidosis.

This disease usually involves hospitalization. Treatment includes: Intravenous saline solutions such as NaCl, KCl etc. Insulin is given by blood transfusion. Add potassium to the infusion If the infection is severe, antibiotics are also added.

Once the disease is resolved, if diabetic ketoacidosis is detected and treated early, the patient will recover within a few days, but if the acidosis is not treated early, life may be compromised. .

Hyperosmolar nonketotic Coma

Diabetic Coma in Type 2 Diabetes Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma is a serious condition that occurs in type 2 diabetes patients with severe disease or stress. Diabetic coma occurs when blood sugar levels are too high and severe dehydration occurs. Unlike ketoacidosis seen in type 1 diabetes, in the hyperosmolar phase no ketones are found in the body or urine, and no acid. Diabetic hyperosmolar coma is seen in diabetic patients older than 60 years as the condition of dehydration has changed and becomes more severe. If excess fluid is lost from the body, shock, syncope, coma and death may occur.

What are the causes of diabetes?

Acute UTI, viral infection, bacterial meningitis, retropharyngeal abscess, hepatobiliary sepsis. Inconsistency in diet or insulin therapy Heart disease Kidney disease Drugs (diuretics, steroids, phenytoin, ß-blockers, calcium channel blockers) Fever Blood ulcers Blood pressure hyperglycaemia Trauma CVA Pancreatitis

Symptoms of Hyperosmolar Coma:

Symptoms of hyperosmolar coma are caused by hyperglycaemia and dehydration. Increased urination Increased thirst Extreme weakness Drowsiness Mental status Changes in head control Headaches Inability to speak Paralysis If you have any of these signs and symptoms, see your blood sugar and call your doctor if you have high blood sugar. Diabetic hyperosmolar coma occurs when blood glucose rises to 600 mg/dL or more.

What are the laboratory findings of a diabetic patient.

o Severe hyperglycemia (> 500mg/dl)

of plasma Hyperosmolality

o Urea:creatinine ratio increases

of secondary glycosuria

o Absence of acute ketoacidosis of metabolic acidosis without or mild

How to treat diabetes? This is an emergency condition and should be treated immediately. Have to stay in the hospital. Treatment goals include treating hyperglycaemia with insulin and treating dehydration with intravenous fluids. The infection can be treated with antibiotics.

How to prevent diabetic coma? Monitor and check your blood sugar regularly, as directed by your doctor Check your blood sugar every four hours when you have an illness. Take good care of yourself when you are seriously ill.

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