Ideal Macros For Female Weight Loss While Gaining Muscle Reddit Macro and Micro-Nutrient in Eggs

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Macro and Micro-Nutrient in Eggs

Eggs have been a staple in the human diet for thousands of years. From hunter-gatherers collecting eggs from the nests of wild birds, to the domestication of birds for more reliable access to a supply of eggs, to today’s genetically selected birds and modern production facilities, eggs have long been recognized as a resource of high quality protein and other important nutrients.

Over the years, eggs have become an essential ingredient in many kitchens, due to their many functional properties, such as retaining water, emulsifying and foaming. An egg is a self-contained and autonomous embryonic development chamber. At adequate temperature, the developing embryo uses the extensive supply of essential nutrients in the egg for its growth and development. The necessary proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and functional nutrients are all present in sufficient quantities for the transition from fertilized cell to newborn chick, and the nutritional needs of an avian species are similar enough to human needs to make eggs an ideal source of nutrients for us. (The one essential human nutrient that eggs do not contain is ascorbic acid (vitamin C), because non-passerine birds have active gulonolactone oxidase and synthesize ascorbic acid when needed.) This article summarizes the varied nutrient contributions eggs make to the human diet. .

Macro and micro nutrients in eggs

The levels of many nutrients in an egg are affected by the age and breed or strain of the hen, as well as the season of the year and the composition of the feed given to the hen. While most variations in nutrients are relatively small, the fatty acid composition of egg lipids can be significantly altered by changes in the hen’s diet. The exact amounts of many vitamins and minerals in an egg are determined in part by the nutrients provided in the hen’s diet. Chicken eggs contain 75.8% water, 12.6% protein, 9.9% lipid, and 1.7% vitamins, minerals and a small amount of carbohydrates. Eggs are classified in the protein food group, and egg protein is one of the highest quality proteins available. Almost all the lipids found in eggs are contained in the yolk, along with most of the vitamins and minerals. Of the small amount of carbohydrate (less than 1% by weight), half is found in the form of glycoprotein and the rest as free glucose.

Egg Protein

Egg proteins, which are divided into both yolk and white (albumen), are nutritionally complete proteins that contain all the essential amino acids (EAA). Egg protein has a chemical score (EAA level in a protein food divided by the level found in an ‘ideal’ protein food) of 100, a biological value (a measure of how efficiently dietary protein is converted into body tissue) of 94, and the highest protein efficiency ratio (ratio of weight gain to protein ingested in young rats) of any dietary protein. The main proteins found in egg yolk include low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which makes up 65%, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), phosvitin, and livetin. These proteins exist in a homogeneous emulsified liquid. Protein consists of about 40 different types of proteins. Ovalbumin is the main protein (54%) together with ovotransferrin (12%) and ovomucoid (11%). Other proteins of interest include flavoprotein, which binds riboflavin, avidin, which can bind and inactivate biotin, and lysozyme, which has lytic action against bacteria.

Egg Lipids

A large egg yolk contains 4.5 g of lipid, consisting of triacylglyceride (65%), phospholipids (31%) and cholesterol (4%). Of the total phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) is the largest fraction and represents 26%. Phosphatidylethanolamine contributes another 4%. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk lipids depends on the fatty acid profile of the diet. The reported fatty acid profile of commercial eggs indicates that a large egg contains 1.55 g of saturated fatty acids, 1.91 g of monounsaturated fat, and 0.68 g of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (Total fatty acids (4.14 g) is not equal to total lipid (4.5 g) because of the glycerol part of triacylglycerides and phospholipids and the phosphorylated parts of the phospholipids). It has been reported that eggs contain less than 0.05 g of trans fatty acids. Egg yolks also contain cholesterol (211mg per large egg) and the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin.

Egg Vitamins

Eggs contain all the essential vitamins except vitamin C, because the developing chick has no dietary requirement for this vitamin. The yolk contains the majority of the water-soluble vitamins and 100% of the fat-soluble vitamins. Riboflavin and niacin are concentrated in the albumen. The riboflavin in the egg albumin is bound to flavoprotein in a molar ratio of 1:1. Eggs are one of the few natural sources of vitamins D and B12. Egg vitamin E levels can be increased up to tenfold through dietary changes. While no single vitamin is found in very high quantity relative to its DRI value, it is the wide spectrum of vitamins present that makes eggs nutritionally rich.

Egg minerals

Eggs contain small amounts of all the minerals that are essential for life. Of particular importance is the iron found in egg yolks. Research evaluating plasma iron and transferrin saturation in 6-12-month-old children indicated that infants who ate eggs had better iron status than infants who did not. The study indicated that eggs can be a source of iron in a different diet for breast-fed and formula-fed infants without raising blood antibodies to egg proteins. Dietary iron absorption from a specific food is determined by iron status, heme- and nonheme-iron content, and amounts of various dietary factors that affect iron absorption present in the whole meal. Limited information is available on the net effect of these factors as related to egg iron bioavailability. In addition to iron, eggs contain calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese. Egg yolks also contain iodine (25 mg per large egg), and this can be increased twice by including an iodine source in the diet. Egg selenium content can also be increased up to nine times through dietary manipulations.

Egg Choline

Choline was established in 1999 as an essential nutrient with recommended daily intakes (RDIs) of 550mg for men and 450mg for women. The RDI for choline increases during pregnancy and lactation due to the high rate of choline transfer from the mother to the fetus and into breast milk. Animal studies indicate that choline plays an essential role in brain development, especially in the development of the memory centers of the fetus and newborn. Egg-yolk lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is an excellent source of dietary choline, providing 125mg of choline per large egg.

Egg Carotene

Egg yolk contains two xanthophylls (carotenes that contain an alcohol group) that have important health benefits – lutein and zeaxanthin. It is estimated that a large egg contains 0.33 mg of lutein and zeaxanthin; however, the content of these xanthophylls is completely dependent on the type of feed for the chickens. Egg yolk lutein levels can be increased up to tenfold by amending the feed with marigold extract or pure lutein.

An indicator of the content of luteinþzeaxanthin is the color of the yolk; the darker yellow-orange the yolk, the higher the xanthophyll content. Studies have shown that egg yolk xanthophylls have a higher bioavailability than those from plant sources, probably because the lipid matrix of the egg yolk facilitates greater absorption. This increased bioavailability results in significant increases in plasma levels of lutein and zeaxanthin as well as increased macular pigment densities with egg feeding.

Egg cholesterol

Eggs are one of the richest sources of dietary cholesterol, providing 215 mg per large egg. In the 1960s and 1970s, the simplistic view that dietary cholesterol equaled blood cholesterol resulted in the belief that eggs were a major contributor to hypercholesterolemia and the associated risk of cardiovascular disease. While there remains some controversy regarding the role of dietary cholesterol in determining blood cholesterol levels, the majority of studies have shown that saturated fat, not dietary cholesterol, is the main dietary determinant of plasma cholesterol levels (and eggs contain 1.5 g of saturated fat) and that neither dietary cholesterol nor egg consumption are significantly related to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Across cultures, those countries with the highest egg consumption actually have the lowest rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease, and studies within populations have shown no correlation between egg intake and either plasma cholesterol levels or the incidence of heart disease. A 1999 study of more than 117,000 men and women followed for 8-14 years showed that the risk of coronary heart disease was the same if the subjects consumed less than one egg per week or more than one egg per day. Clinical studies show that dietary cholesterol has little effect on plasma cholesterol levels. Adding one egg per day to the diet would increase average plasma total cholesterol levels by about 5mg dl_1 (0.13mmol/L). However, it is important to note that the increase occurs in both the atherogenic LDL cholesterol fraction (4mg dl_1 (0.10mmol/L)) and the antiatherogenic HDL cholesterol fraction (1 mg dl_1 (0.03mmol/L)), resulting in practically no change in the LDL:HDL ratio, an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. The plasma lipoprotein cholesterol response to egg feeding, especially any changes in the LDL: HDL ratio, vary according to the individual and the baseline plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. Adding one egg a day to the diet of three hypothetical patients with different plasma lipid profiles results in very different effects on the LDL:HDL ratio. For the low-risk individual, there is a greater effect than for the high-risk person, but in any case the effect is quantitatively small and would have little impact on their heart disease risk profile.

Overall, results from clinical studies indicate that egg feeding has little or no effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease. This corresponds to the results of a number of epidemiological studies. A common consumer misperception is that eggs from some breeds of birds have little or no cholesterol. For example, eggs from Araucana chickens, a South American breed that lays a blue-green egg, have been promoted as eggs with low cholesterol, when in fact the cholesterol content of these eggs is 25% higher than that of commercial eggs. The amount of cholesterol in an egg is set by the developmental needs of the embryo and has proven to be very difficult to change substantially without resorting to hypocholesterolemic drug use. Unintended concerns regarding egg cholesterol content resulted in a steady decline in egg consumption in the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s, and restriction of this important and affordable source of high-quality protein and other nutrients could have negative effects on the well-being of a many nutritionally ‘risk’ populations. Egg consumption per capita has increased over the past decade in North America, Central America and Asia, has remained relatively stable in South America and Africa, and has fallen in Europe and Oceania. Overall, egg consumption per capita in the world has steadily increased over the past decade, partly due to the change in attitudes regarding health concerns of dietary cholesterol.

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